RESEARCH MEDICAL

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Screening for neck & lower back ligament damage
using Guides to Permanent Impairment x-ray protocols
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Research Spinal Instability

The only method that can objectively quantify full spinal ligament rupture is to use an end-range stress study using x-ray.

This is the basis of our assessments - to objectively examine post-traumatic neck and lumbar spines for ligament damage.


Proof that will help the patient get the proper care required to rehabilitate third degree spinal ligament injuries.

Research Review of

Flexion-Extension X-ray Support & Guidelines

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ORM HAS THREE AREAS OF RESEARCH

  1. Instabilities in the spine created by soft tissue, mainly ligament damage, as a result of trauma forces to the spine;

  2. Retrospective inspections of a large motor vehicle patient database involving spinal instabilities to the cervical and lumbar spine;

  3. Design and inspection of instability-specific support products for the cervical and lumbar spine.

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O R M   R E F E R E N C E   R E P O R T S

SPINAL SCREENING ASSESSMENT FOR LIGAMENT TEAR USING END RANGE X-RAY STRESS TEST.

The following publication database is a list of references utilized in reports produced by the Ontario Research Medical Group. Actual report footnotes reference specific pages and quotations are relevant and specific to each patient case. This list is not comprehensive nor does it allow full copies of the articles due to copyright protection from each paper. Full copies of each article can be made available with the permission from the publisher. Abstracts are, however, made available on this page.

The purpose of this published list is to provide a general site view of globally accepted studies with clinical application to our reports.

  1. Se Youn Jang, Min Ho Kong, Henry J. Hymanson, at. al. Radiographic Parameters of Segmental Instability in Lumbar Spine Using Kinetic MRI J Korean Neurosuf Soc 45: 24-31, 2009 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2640818/

  2. Harris, Carson, Wagner Radiologic Diagnosis of Traumatic Occipitovertebral Dissociation: 1.Normal Occipitovertebral Relationships on Lateral Radiographs of Supine Subjects AJR 1994; 162:881-886http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8141013

  3. Stemper, Yoganandan, Pintar, Rao Anterior longitudinal ligament injuries in whiplash may lead to cervical instability Medical Engineering & Physics 28 (2006) 515-524 CASE LAW APPLICATION: http://www.apmlawyers.com/low-speed-crashes-can-cause-serious-injuries-debunking-the-mist.html http://65.54.113.26/Publication/33491781/anterior-longitudinal-ligament-injuries-in-whiplash-may-lead-to-cervical-instability

  4. Edeiken-Monroe, Wagner, Harris Hyperextension Dislocation of the Cervical Spine AJR 146:803-808, April 1986 pp803-808http://www.ajronline.org/doi/abs/10.2214/ajr.146.4.803

  5. Hwang, Modi, Suh et.al. Reliability of Lumbar Lordosis Measurement in Patients With Spondylolisthesis SPINE Volume 35, Number 18, pp 1691-1700http://journals.lww.com/spinejournal/Abstract/2010/08150/Reliability_of_Lumbar_Lordosis_Measurement_in.6.aspx

  6. Woods, Brady, Pollock, Kini, Young Flexion-extension cervical spine radiography in pediatric blunt trauma Emergency Radiology, 1998, Volume 5, Number 6, Pages 381-384 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF02749184

  7. Bogduk, Yoganandan Biomechanics of the cervical spine Part 3: Minor injuries Clinical Biomechanics 16 (2001) 267-275http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0268003301000031

  8. Wiesel, Rothman Occipital Hypermobility SPINE Volume 4, Number 3, May/June 1979 pp187-191http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/740387

  9. Harrison, Harrison Cailliet et. al. Cobb Method or Harrison Posterior Tangent Method SPINE Volume 25, Numer 16, pp2072-2078 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/740387

  10. McGill Stability: from biomechanical concept to chiropractic practice J Can Chiropr Assoc 1999;43(2)http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2485366/

  11. Mirza, White III, Panjabi Part 1: The occipital-cervical junction: Evaluating instability in cervical spine injuries The Journal of Musculoskeletal Medicine, March 1996

  12. Mirza, White III, Panjabi Part 2: The lower cervical spine: Evaluating instability in the cervical spine injury J of Musculoskeletal Medicine, April 1996 pp.12-24

  13. White, Panjabi Clinical instability in the lower cervical spine: A review of past and current concepts. SPINE 1976:115-127http://journals.lww.com/spinejournal/Abstract/1976/03000/Clinical_Instability_in_the_Lower_Cervical_Spine_A.3.aspx

  14. Hong WE et al. Missed spondylolisthesis in static MRIs but found in Dynamic MRIs in patients with low back pain. The Spine Journal 2007 (5S):69S http://www.canadianchiropractor.ca/content/view/1672/

  15. Zou J et al Missed lumbar disc herniations diagnosed with kinetic magnetic resonance imaging. Spine 33 (5):E140-E144http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18317181

  16. Brownlee Dynamic MRI Effective Imaging and implications for the DC Canadian Chiropractor Feature page 28-34http://www.canadianchiropractor.ca/content/view/1672/

  17. Wholey Bruwer Hillier Baker The Lateral Roentgenogram of the Neck Radiology, February 1, 1958http://radiology.rsna.org/content/71/3/350.extract

  18. White III, Johnson, Panjabi, Southwick Biomechanical Analysis of Clinical Stability in the Cervical Spine Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research Number 109, June, 1975 pp 85-96http://www.researchgate.net/publication/22023851_Biomechanical_analysis_of_clinical_stability_in_the_cervical_spine

  19. Posner, White III et. al. A Biomechanical Analysis of the Clinical Stability of the Lumbar and Lumbosacral Spine SPINE, Volume 7, Number 4, 1982 pp 374-389 http://www.leomed.at/listhoscan/posner_82.pdf

  20. Hohl, Baker The Atlanto-Axial Joint: Roentgenographic and Anatomical Study of Normal and Abnormal Motion The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery Vol 46-A No 8 December 1964 pp1739-1752 http://jbjs.org/article.aspx?articleid=14233

  21. Frobin, Leivseth, Biggemann, Brinckmann Sagittal plane segmental motion of the cervical spine. A new precision measurement protocol and normal motion data of healthy adults Clinical Biomechanics, 17 (2002) 21-31http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11779643

  22. Harrison, Harrison Troyanovich Reliability of Spinal Displacement Analysis on Plain X-Rays: A Review of Commonly Accepted Facts and Fallacies with Implications for Chiropractic Education and Technique JMPT Volume 21 Number 4 May 1998 pp 252266

  23. Oda, Panjabi, Crisco III Three-Dimensional Translation Movements of the Upper Cervical Spine Journal of Spinal Disorders Volume 4, No 4, pp 411-419

  24. Haas et. al. Interrater Reliability of Roentgenological Evaluation of the Lumbar Spine in Lateral Bending JMPT Volume 13, Noumber 4, May 1990 pp 179-189

  25. Jackson, McManus Radiographic Analysis of Sagittal Plane Alighnemtn and Balance in Standing Volunteers and Patients with Low Back Pain Matched for Age, Sex, and Size: A Prospective Controlled Clinical Study SPINE Volume 19, Number 14, pp 1611-1618